I am experiencing such frustration with my Junior class right now! I teach all sciences in my small school 7-11th. This is my second year teaching and while my Juniors last year struggled a bit in Chem, they are massively struggling this year. I have a Chemistry textbook that is two decades old, so I have elected to use it more as reference. I began both years with the periodic table, it’s arrangement, charge structure, properties and naming molecular and ionic compounds. Then, we progressed to balancing, finding molar mass, converting from grams to moles and back, percent composition. Now we are on empirical formula and molecular formulas. This is as far as we have gotten this year! Last year I had at least made it to stoichometry and gas laws. We went to Lewis dots and structural shapes, acids and bases, reaction rates, and equilibrium. My students are just crashing on understanding. I know it is not me; as I said last year was better...I have only 16 students, 5 of which have IEPS and take algebra basics instead of alg 2 right now. I am finding basic concepts of solving for x lacking as well as just understanding the steps. One of my top students today in trying to understand empirical formaula was having a break down over how they were going to know the steps! I keep wondering if I am focusing on the math too much? But, I look at the labs we could do, and the questions all involve this math. I haven’t been teaching long enough to customize labs. My students act like I am trying to teach them college chem. Am I? There are literally only 8 science standards that apply to Chemistry, so maybe I am having unreal expectations. Chemistry teachers out there do you have suggestions for me?

What are the different levels of chem? In my school, students may take Conceptual Chem, Mathematical Chem, Honors Chem, or AP Chem so there is a wide assortment. It sounds like the kids you have would likely be kids in the Conceptual Chem camp over here.

I only have one Chemistry class. I am the only science teacher in our small school. I have only 16 students in Chem. So, the most basic Chem?

I have no idea about chemistry, but here is a link to my state's released chemistry final exam. All core subjects have state exams here. To give you some context, in my state, students only need 3 science classes to graduate: earth science, bio, and either physical sci or chem. State colleges require chem, so that is what college-bound kids take. Kids who know they don't want to go to a 4 year college usually take physical science. http://www.ncpublicschools.org/accountability/testing/common-exams/released-items/highschoolitems

Chemistry teacher here. On years where I have especially low regular classes, as you are describing, I make sure students can do the following as a bare minimum so I felt like I had given them a foundation: 1. Determine how many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in an atom; identify the different atomic models: Thomson's, Rutherford's, Bohr's, and Schrodinger's. 2. Know the names of the periodic table groups and periodic table trends. 3. Write electron configurations. 4. Write and name ionic and covalent compounds. 5. Balance equations and identify the basic reaction types. 6. Complete mole to atom and mole to gram conversions. 7. Calculate % composition and empirical formulas. 8. Complete mass to mass stoichiometry calculations. 9. Know and use the gas laws (combined, ideal, dalton's) 10. Calculate molarity. 11. Identify acid and base characteristics; perform basic pH calculations. 12. Touch on reduction and oxidation; solve very basic electrochemistry problems. 13. Describe half-life and complete transmutation reactions. 14. Understand and calculate specific heat along with endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Thank you, Bioguru, thank really helps! We have made it to 8, more or less. Do you feel like you need to re-teach math concepts just to get students to comprehend basic algebra of solving for grams or moles? I am literally pulling my hair out with this group!

I don't do a focused algebra review, but I really try to do a lot of modeling as I solve problems. For example, let's say you had a basic problem like converting 48g of Mg to moles. I would talk through the process: "Start with what you're given: 48g of Mg. Set up your dimensional analysis with moles on top (because that's the unit we want) and grams on bottom (because that's the unit we want to cancel out). Using our periodic table, we see that for every 1 mole of Mg we will have about 24 grams. Thus, I'm going to have 1 mole on top, and 24g on bottom. When we multiply 48 by 1 and divide by 24, we get about 2 moles of Mg." My usual teaching approach is to start by working two problems on the board, talking through it in a lot of detail. Then I will give them a paper with about 5-10 similar problems on it. We'll work through the first one together, me asking them leading questions to guide me through it. I will then have them try two on their own which we immediately discuss and solve on the board for quick feedback. I'll then give them about 10-15 minutes depending on the topic to work through the remaining problems on their own as I rotate around and catch mistakes, answer questions, offer praise, redirect, etc.

Can you try using the Modeling Chemistry stuff from the modelinginstruction website? Also, check out NJCTL's site with their chemistry guides and material. Their stuff is really helpful. https://njctl.org/courses/science/chemistry/